SMRT Culture and KPI

There is a well-known real management story. Two management consultants were hired to improve efficiency for traffic police in one of the US states. On the first day, they observed that two traffic police officers got into the police car and proceed to drive up and down the expressway at the start of their duty. When they returned after finishing their tour of duty, another two police officers got
into the police car and proceed to the same routine of driving up and down the expressway. And the same cycle continued to repeat.

The two management consultants were mystified by these seemingly meaningless activities until they realise that one of the Key Performance Index (KPI) for the police officer was the mileage covered during the tour of duty.

The top management has to be very careful on how they run the company. Laying down the KPIs to set the direction of the company will change the company culture and result consequences that will in line with the KPIs. They cannot blame the company culture for poor performance because it is precisely they who set the directions on how the company culture evolves.

Although the KPI for SMRT were never explicitly made public, it is actually not very hard to guess what the SMRT KPIs are and how the KPIs had affected the SMRT work culture as well as compromised its performance.

Prior to Ms Saw’s appointment as CEO of SMRT, SMRT focused exclusively on providing public transportation for the nation. To be fair, things were also easier then. SMRT capacity was able to handle the smaller population size.

Ms Saw was ambitious. She wanted SMRT to be a large, profitable company. When she took over the helm of SMRT from 2002, one can guess that she slowly changed the SMRT’s KPI to increase its revenues as much as possible. Resources were focused and channelled into building shopping malls in both the SMRT stations and connecting link ways. It was not hard to imagine that routine maintenance gradually took a backseat since these activities would not increase the profitability of the company. Employees who come up with creative ideas on how to develop business ventures were likely to be promoted and rewarded whereas employees who performed routine checks and maintenance were likely be given the minimal resources and recognition.

By 2011, the MRT succumbed to numerous breakdowns after years of neglects and under maintenance. However, the effects were exactly in line with the KPIs.

When Mr Kuek took over in 2012, he changed the KPIs. Unfortunately, contrary to Mr Khaw that “his heart was in the right place”, there were numerous signs that the KPI’s were more self-serving than public-serving.

• As the earlier breakdowns were due to dislocations of track shoes, a massive project was embarked upon to replace all the tracks in the entire network. However, a ridiculously long timeline (I think it was 5 years) was given – long enough to build an entirely new small network. Of course, the entire project was finished well before the timeline to give the impression of high efficiency.

• There were lots of advertisements to give the impression that a lot of work was done, as well as false sense of achievements that the project was completed well before the original timeline.

• In recognition of the “good performance”, Kuek’s pay tripled from the initial 600 thousand to 2 million today.

In actual fact, there were years of neglects and under maintenance. Coupled with the much larger population size, numerous problems started appearing everywhere. In order to justify that high pay to commensurate with the “good performance”, one can guess that the next set of KPIs is to get the trains running as soon as possible.

The frequent breakdown generated public anger over the perceived incompetency of the SMRT senior management. SMRT responded by showing advertisements of their ground staff working, indirectly deflecting the directed anger toward SMRT senior management.

Unfortunately, the KPI to get the trains running as soon as possible soon degenerated into cutting corners. There was a news article that reported that a massive breakdown was caused because the power circuit breaker was tripped when the power surged beyond the threshold limit. To prevent the same event from re-occurring, the threshold limit was increased to several times its original value.

(I could not remember the exact details as this news report occurred quite a while back. I would appreciate if any reader could dig out the link to this news event.)

At that time, I recalled feeling very apprehensive. Was that the correct method to resolve that track fault problem? If the threshold limit was set too low to begin with, how could the train had run for more than 20 years without any problems? And were the safety issues clearly understood when the threshold level was increased to such a high level that it presumably would almost never trip the circuit breaker?

Coming back to the present, we all knew that the pumps were not properly maintained and that maintenance records were falsified.

It was all too easy to point fingers at the maintenance team for being incompetent and/or dishonest, and that they deserved to be punished.

I believe deeper issues need to be addressed in order to understand the circumstances on how these problems occur. As in the above case of increasing the threshold level to prevent the circuit breaker from tripping, who is to be responsible if somebody gets electrocuted should the power surge to a dangerously level without tripping the circuit breaker? Would an electrical engineer who opposed raising the threshold level and requested more time to investigate, understand and resolve the problem be marginalised? How culpable is the unlucky electrical engineer at that point in time when somebody gets electrocuted?

At this point, I will make an assumption that SMRT employees do not report for work with the intention of making a mess and that I will give them the benefits of doubts that they had attempted to work within the best of their abilities. The critical question is why the pumps had not been properly maintained if the maintenance team had worked to the best of their abilities?

Mr Khaw has already revealed that several more pumps had been discovered that were not properly maintained. This is a much deeper problem and is not merely a one-off incident because a few employees decided not to do their work properly. As a comparison, when the trains start breaking down in 2011, it is not a simple case that a few employees decided to slack in their work.

At the minimum, the following issues need to be clearly investigated.

• Is the maintenance team overworked or under resources, and hence unable to perform the pump maintenance work because of lack of resources and / or lack of time?

Specifically, were the team members consistently deployed to deal with the “more urgent” tasks of getting the trains to be up and running as soon as possible during the regular train breakdowns, until they no longer had the time or capacity to perform the regular pump maintenance jobs?

• Why did the team falsify the maintenance records? It is all too easy to write off the team as being “dishonest”, “unethical” or “corrupted” and that the correct protocol is that the team should have just flagged to their management that they were not able to perform the regular pump maintenance work on time for whatever reasons.

However, things were sometimes not so straightforward. A real management story in the aftermath of Lehman Brothers’ collapse was that a very senior MD warned the CEO that the credit business was very dangerous, at the time when it was very profitable. And he advised the CEO to move away from the credit business about two years before Lehman Brother eventually collapsed. Thereafter, this senior MD was forced into early retirement. In fact, it was not an isolated incident and soon everybody knew that it is best not open one’s mouth.

Hence, a critical question is to understand the SMRT corporate culture. Would management have bothered to listen and understand if the team had flagged that they were not able to perform the regular pump maintenance work on time? Or would the management simply write them off as being lazy and incompetent? Would the team be told that since everybody else were able to do their jobs well even though they were deployed to help out with the more urgent” tasks of getting the trains to be up and running, there were no excuses that maintenance team was not able to perform the regular pump maintenance work on time?

This is not a far-fetched question. Kuek had publicly blamed the corporate culture for SMRT poor performance, that is, basically everybody else in SMRT was at fault. Would anybody else be honest to tell him any problems in future?

To be clear, I am not stating that it is right and proper to falsify records – it is not. But one needs to understand the contextual background. If the corporate culture is such that people who flagged out issues would get penalised, then the management team is just as culpable. Passing the blame onto convenient scapegoats does not solve any problems.

 

Martins Adams

 

 

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29 Responses to “SMRT Culture and KPI”

  • C'est la vie:

    *****
    Good analysis but as is the case in SG, this Govt takes neither advice nor suggestions from anybody, apart from their own. And since they are all “in sync” and “sing from the same hymn sheets”, it’s highly unlikely that they’ll ever experience a “eureka” moment.

    So it’s best to let “sleeping dogs lie” cos there’s not much point in “upsetting the apple cart”, seeing that the rot is so deeply and irrevocably entrenched, one should and must allow “nature to take its course” ………… and await the almighty implosion of the great white hope, that is the PAP !!!
    ***
    *****

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  • 哈利吗:

    说得好、治標要治本

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  • survey recently:

    Where is harimau ? Where is the Joker lau gor , where is mee sian mai hum ? All gone for holidays ? Nothing to comment about devil quack ? Sent all them to sungai buloh if they lost coming election.

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  • Amos exposed PAP hypocrisy:

    “What gets measured gets managed.”

    So SMRT had the wrong KPI. Who fault is this? It cannot be just SMRT Management. It is also the responsibility of its Board. The main shareholders of SMRT should have ensured the cmpany had the appropriate KPI. Since SMRT is a pubic utility regulated by LRT it too has responsibility for SMRT’s KPI’s going further up the Transport Ministry and its Minister is also responsible and accountable. Since the latter is part of Cabinet it too is responsible and accountable. The Cabinet is composed of PAP Ministers so PAP is also responsible and accountable. Lastly, Singaporeans chose the PAP to run the government so they are ULTIMATELY responsible. Bottom line. Singapore deserve whatever they get. They get what they voted for. The only issue now is are they prepared to admit responsibility AND have the spine to vote for change. “The buck does not stop with the PM (or PAP) it stops with Singaporean voters”. If Singaporeans want somebody to blame they should just stand in front of a mirror. The culprit is staring them in the face.

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  • N.Jungne:

    Alarmak only Sad and Embarrassing, that’s life and bad luck no Harakiri

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  • ganeshsk:

    THE KBW sang the same song as former minister WKS it should not have happened but it did and added is own liner that is life.

    Now the KBW is so cock sure that if the date to check pump was just two said earlier the flooding incident would not happen.

    Yet in the same breadth they find few more faulty pumps.

    So it is still matter of time.

    These people have the cheek not to admit it. and won’t call a COI.

    Bunch clowns I would say.

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  • opposition dude:

    What I find amazing about the reasons given by SMRT is that records were falsified back in December 2016. This is almost a whole year of falsification.

    We have not heard the maintenance team’s story other than the fact that they did not manage to get a slot to service the pumps. What I find fishy is that they weren’t able to get access since last December! Something is wrong somewhere and we are not getting the full story. What were the supervisors doing? Were higher ups informed that access slots were not available since last December? Why such lackadasical attitude?

    Kuek’s revealation of deep seated cultural issues gives me the impression of too many non Singaporeans or new citizens working inside SMRT. I suspect these people far outnumber true blues and so do whatever the heck they want. This could also explain why track and train faults happen with such frequency.

    As we all are aware, certain nationalities are smooth talkers or cut too many corners. I won’t be surprised if cutting corners is rampant inside SMRT and senior management can’t do jack about it. After all, you do need people to maintain the various systems and it seems all the good guys were retrenched by Saw all those years ago.

    So if my suspicion is correct then SMRT certainly does have far too many tidak apa staff which senior management can’t do anything about them. If they were replaced where would the replacements come from since it’s said locals don’t want to do this line of work?

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  • Amos exposed PAP hypocrisy:

    Must never forget that Ms Saw is Ho Ching’s friend.

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  • Doomed:

    The fact is Singapore is fast going downhill.
    Almost every other day we hear the MRT breaking down.
    We have been importing “talents” for far too long. Look at where we are now.
    We are already far far behind China….and still struggling to repair our own train system.
    Govt has to wake the f-up and start developing our own engineers and technologies.
    But fat hope they will listen.

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  • LIONS:

    i remember the SMRT retrenched off not afew experienced sgporean engineering staff ,so?

    TALK IS CHEAP,anyone can talk big and A FEW GOOD MEN CAN REALLY TALK COCK?

    Since lee ah long took over the helm,things here have been farking up big time,eh?

    FTs,FTs my foot!

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  • Got Hit KPI:

    Temasek Holdings hit 13% annual returns. Your CPF guaranteed 2.5% return is safe. Majulah Singapura CPF sure win investment.

    Amos exposed PAP hypocrisy:
    Must never forget that Ms Saw is Ho Ching’s friend.

    Amos exposed PAP hypocrisy:
    “What gets measured gets managed.”

    So SMRT had the wrong KPI. Who fault is this? It cannot be just SMRT Management. It is also the responsibility of its Board. The main shareholders of SMRT should have ensured the cmpany had the appropriate KPI. Since SMRT is a pubic utility regulated by LRT it too has responsibility for SMRT’s KPI’s going further up the Transport Ministry and its Minister is also responsible and accountable. Since the latter is part of Cabinet it too is responsible and accountable. The Cabinet is composed of PAP Ministers so PAP is also responsible and accountable. Lastly, Singaporeans chose the PAP to run the government so they are ULTIMATELY responsible. Bottom line. Singapore deserve whatever they get. They get what they voted for. The only issue now is are they prepared to admit responsibility AND have the spine to vote for change. “The buck does not stop with the PM (or PAP) it stops with Singaporean voters”. If Singaporeans want somebody to blame they should just stand in front of a mirror. The culprit is staring them in the face.

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  • Bystander:

    Alamak, another Liang Zhu wayang performance. Such wayangs repeated too often lose its attraction, become stale.
    Would be better if some crocodile tears shed.

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  • Harder Truths:

    Thank you. Good analysis thank you but I do not agree with the conclusions that it is management issues like KPI that formed a root cause of the problem.

    The root cause is putting incompetent PEOPLE into management, into running the train system and also into covering it up. The people involved in all these acts are not only the pappy management but every other person supporting them.

    This is a LOT of people involved, Yet nobody dares say anything. The silence is absolute.

    I do not just refer to MRTC. Look at the health sector. The medical system is a joke. We have third world accidents on our roads. The same thing is gong on EVERYWHERE.

    Is there a train wreck coming that can be prevented but those in the know dare not say anything? What about contagious diseases? Joe many of these FT know how to drive? How many workers have died in construction sites. Or in food courts ( I can remember at least two).

    All it takes is one BIG event to slowly build up fro years of neglect, indifference and laziness. When that happens you have the same chance as anyone of being one of the unlucky ones.

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  • talk cock lah:

    As the saying goes, when shxx hits the fan, duck. Typical of government scholar civil servants, who do not want their high paying $$$ careers ruined. The guys at the bottom of the food chain, non scholars, low level end up having hit and eating the shxx!

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  • pap selected INDIAN president:

    survey recently:
    Where is harimau ? Where is the Joker lau gor , where is mee sian mai hum ? All gone for holidays ? Nothing to comment about devil quack ? Sent all them to sungai buloh if they lost coming election.

    very good questions, bro. all paying each other S$m yet no sound no fury.

    we did not vote for tony tan the previous one. and we still think we did the right thing. you see, after he has come and is now gone we are still puzzled what one single thing he has done for us. this tony tan endorsement has done ZERO, KOSONG, NOTHING, for us.

    so the same for the pap selected INDIAN president. she shall be collecting her S$m and yet with zero, kosong, nothing, at the end of her term.

    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
    pap says when inside one is not within 200m. the same pap says presidency is reserved for malay yet pap selected INDIAN. this lying pap must go.
    ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

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  • Lye Khuen Way:

    Exactly, “c’est la vie”. The coverment here considers itself too good, too smart. We are the drafts, no?

    The culture of tida-apathy has been deep rooted across the public service sector. Yes, Mdn Saw did perhaps neglected maintainence but I bet that was part of her given KPI from you know who.

    Then again why? Perhaps, it was an unintended all-out follow through of one very persuasive man defying “What’s wrong with Collecting More Money?”.

    C'est la vie:
    *****
    Good analysis but as is the case in SG, this Govt takes neither advice nor suggestions from anybody, apart from their own. And since they are all “in sync” and “sing from the same hymn sheets”, it’s highly unlikely that they’ll ever experience a “eureka” moment.

    So it’s best to let “sleeping dogs lie” cos there’s not much point in “upsetting the apple cart”, seeing that the rot is so deeply and irrevocably entrenched, one should and must allow “nature to take its course” ………… and await the almighty implosion of the great white hope, that is the PAP !!!
    ***
    *****

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  • Bohchup disease?:

    How sure are we that the other GLCs and agencies are not infected with this disease. Scary just to think about it.

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  • Typewriting cher:

    Caw did not say whether the pump maintenance team could get approval to stop train n enter the track for them to work?

    What if they put in request to enter track but not approve? How to do work?

    1-side story all told by management…………..anyway what happen to first public inquiry ………incomplete enquiring?

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  • kkj:

    Give this man a tiger. Well written. Who is Martin Adams? Dart player?

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  • Where is Rule of Law?:

    Falsification of records is a criminal offence. Where is the rule of law? One set of law of citizens and the other for elites? Do they already know who the culprits and just doing this wayang to protect the culprits?

    CPIB must investigate this unique and special case of “own-up and not get penalised” which is not how things are done in Singapore. Rule of Law says all wrong doing must be punished without exception whether it’s PAP kaki or not.

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  • Tsk tsk:

    Who is responsible for the appointment of Ms Saw, an unqualified retail people for a transport co? It is a well known fact that Ms Saw is HC’s friend. This is cronyism at its best.
    The Chairman that appointed Ms Saw in 2002 was Mr Chew CHoon Seng. He was later rewarded with appointments as CEO SIA and Chairman SGX

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  • Concerned!:

    excellent article.
    there are basically 2 issues here:
    1. the refusal to be accountable, esp by top level people
    2. a belief that maintenance is not worth the time, effort and money.

    spore likes yes men, so if you bring up a problem people would rather
    not hear you. you are seen as a troublemaker. and if you want to spend
    time, trouble and money to keep things in good shape and prevent problems,
    change how things are done, you would not be very popular, because such expenditure reduces profits, which all those in charge of Anything worship.

    it would be interesting to find out the details of the toxic relationship
    betw LTA and SMRT, but we never will becos there will be no COI. this
    indicates that those in charge are really not interested in reasons and solutions, in getting to the truth, only in covering up or pushing blame.

    as such, we will never learn; never correct faults.

    it would be good if the old maintenance engineers who left in disgust
    over what Saw was doing, spilled the beans. or do we have to wait for deaths
    before the lid is prised off the can of pythons?

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  • 俺来说几句:

    Although its perceieved that in the entire world, most countries would have seen such poor management of the Metro system be sacked or punished long ago, SG is a unicorn.

    SG base on singlian meritocracy. Several Generals hold top private positions in SG.

    Its a Nanny State aka Authoritarian state although some call it Police-State which i dare not say.

    Ultimately, the People have Spoken. For smaller issues, in the private sector, eg. a taxi driver pointing a middle finger , the well educated sg majority will want his blood and have him sacked.

    But in public sector and GLC related company fiascos of extremely huge fiasco magnitudes, these singaporeans WILL ACCEPT and tolerate.

    This is proven for 50 years.

    I cannot be debunked for the truths i ejaculated from my mouth.

    The People ACCEPTs.

    I call it Singlian Meritocracy.

    I did not say animal farm.

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  • oxygen:

    @ Got Hit KPI:

    THAT IS WHY THE AGC cannot say this is cyberspace FAKE NEWS publishing again – all peasants wake up every morning CRYING miserable on their CPF “safe” return of only 2.5% per annum.

    AGC’s fake news crusade is MAU KU LAU SU (when the rat dies, the cats all assemble and cry inconsolable of sorrowful sadness of pain) in the reality face of Majulah Singapura CPF sure win investment.

    Got Hit KPI: Temasek Holdings hit 13% annual returns. Your CPF guaranteed 2.5% return is safe. Majulah Singapura CPF sure win investment.

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  • like "more reliability":

    //What I find amazing about the reasons given by SMRT is that records were falsified back in December 2016. This is almost a whole year of falsification.//

    with such stellar documentation, no wonder the white idiotic team could present statement like “more reliability”.

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  • Simply Incompetent:

    Hey, Martins – Brilliant summary of what went wrong with SMRT. Look at it anyway you like, ultimately the monkey remains on the back of the CEO. Simply put, the CEO is INCOMPETENT. He does not have the relevant experience and the job is too big for him. Again … case of a square plug being put into a round hole!

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  • MrAdamW:

    Imagine if Singapore ministars built Nuclear power station. They can’t even take care of mrt!!!!

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  • Ho Jinx Chun Sings:

    If the many many old guard engineers were not sacked, would this nearly a decade long fiasco have been so bad?

    Ho Jinx Chun Sings

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  • Rabble-rouser:

    The SAF Culture disease afflicted the SMRT organization right after Desmond Kuek came in. Look at how he put in his SAF buddies into SMRT. And falsification of maintenance records didn’t happened under ex-CEO Cleopatra Saw Phaik Hwa’s watch – it happened under present-day CEO Desmond Kuek’s period during the last 5 years.
    Those who served National Service in the SAF will understand how disenfranchised & disconnected NS men are in the military service. The officers have their own cocooned world & comfort zone where they give orders & expect the men to follow through even if it is an absurd or unrealistic order. The fact is that the officers are ‘Ivory Tower’ scholars without any meaningful experience nor any understanding of the ground. They are the products of an elitist environment which had nurture them to have such high expectations & ill-conceive notions of utter superiority & no-questions asked attitude from a lesser core eg NS men or even NCOs.
    And that they are paid well-above norms for what people see them as incompetent managers & elevated heads without relevant experience – people quickly get demotivated & demoralized seeing that their hard work isn’t & will not be recognized nor appreciated.
    The falsification of maintenance records is a reaction by the ground to what they see as unjustification of the SAF Culture imposed on them by the PAP govt. In the SAF culture, credit is 100% taken up by the officers, while blame is shifted 100% down the line – This cannot work in a commercial operation.
    A military-type organization mechanism simply doesn’t work within a commercial enterprise system – it is doomed to fail. Just look at NOL for instance – how it was ran to the ground by PAP’s ex-military people but under CGM-CMA’s astute management, NOL revived to post a profit post-acquisition. It was a damning statement of epic proportions – shown by the marketplace.
    Now SMRT faces a new problem – a rapid breakdown of installations coupled with a totally demoralized workforce who had resorted to falsification of work records. Plus all the blame-shifting of the PAP to the SMRT management; the SMRT management to the ground staff – it leads to a disease eco-system of systemic failure.
    p.s. the Ang Moh who posted this piece doesn’t know SAF culture. But those of us who went through NS can clearly see this. Am I not correct?

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